This is a guest post from Jeffrey C. Isaac and William Kindred Winecoff who both teach political science at Indiana University, Bloomington

Last Wednesday the two of us circulated an open letter from U.S. political scientists, expressing concern about how the crisis surrounding the COVID pandemic could endanger the November election, and declaring that “We Must Urgently Work to Guarantee Free and Fair Democratic Elections in November” (posted at bottom). The letter endorsed the excellent report produced by legal scholars at the Brennan Center for Justice, entitled “Responding to the Coronavirus Crisis.”

Within 6 hours 500 of our colleagues had signed. Within 48 hours over 950 had signed. Among the signatories were some of the most distinguished political scientists in the U.S.; many past-presidents of the American Political Science Association (and the current president as well); and hundreds of the most dedicated teachers of American politics in U.S. higher education. This is a pretty striking response. As the political scientists who circulated the letter, and who are in a sense “participant observers,” we think it is important to explain this phenomenon—the rather phenomenal worry of so many people who study and teach about politics for a living.

In the spirit of reflexive inquiry, we offer the following hypotheses:

The current COVID pandemic is a global health crisis and economic crisis of unprecedented proportions, and such crises always place stress on democracy.

Political scientists understand that such crises can place extraordinary strain on even the most functional and legitimate political systems. The crises of the 1930s is perhaps the most useful example.  The U.S. political system is not especially functional or legitimate at present. It has suffered from extreme Congressional gridlock and obstruction; an extremely decentralized and archaic electoral system that makes voting difficult for many and makes even proper vote tabulation problematic; high levels of polarization and political alienation and distrust; and high levels of inequality. When the virus’s unprecedented threat to public safety is factored into this, raising questions about whether people will be even to go to the polls, the danger to our democratic election is elevated even higher.

The current president of the U.S. is a man with no experience of political leadership or governing authority, who has waged a war on central principles and institutions of constitutional democracy.

This president has demonized his political opponents and the independent media; has expressed admiration for dictators abroad; and has even spoken on numerous occasions of his desire to remain in office beyond his term. A number of his former associates have raised a question raised publicly by many scholars: would he even step down if voted out of office? If there is one “law” of political science, it is that autocrats will exploit crises and “emergencies” to enhance their power in ways that threaten democracy. Putin does this. Erdogan does this. Orban does this. Many political scientists obviously fear that Trump might do this, not least because he has expressed admiration for all of the aforementioned heads of state. And there is strong political science research to support this fear.

It is during moments of crisis that democracy is most endangered and is thus in most need of special vigilance and support.

There is much empirical research that demonstrates the ways that democratic civil society groups and opposition political parties and elites can often be mobilized to effectively resist political leaders with authoritarian tendencies.

At the same time, normative democratic theory has produced an exceptionally strong body of research on the reasons why democracy is so important in a time of crisis, highlighting these factors:

(a) the political competition and democratic contestation made possible by free and fair elections is an essential method of “social learning,” where the performance of the government in power can be “tested,” alternative proposals can be advanced, and the citizenry as a whole can register preferences about the best way forward. As political theorists from John Stuart Mill to John Dewey to Robert Dahl have shown, without such challenges, any government will become complacent. In this crisis, with this dysfunctional Trump administration, this is especially important.

(b) democratic elections are also essential to the ongoing legitimacy of the government and of the political system more generally. Especially in time of crisis, it is essential for citizens to have a voice in political power, and to have a sense of a “stake” in the difficult decisions that the government will have to make. In a time of crisis, citizens are called upon to make sacrifices. Without real democratic engagement, such calls ring hollow, and citizens will not furnish crisis governments with the support that they need.

(c) in a crisis like the current one, questions of social equity and justice necessarily come to the fore.  These questions must be addressed by any government seeking to avert crisis. And in order for them to be addressed, they need to be articulated, loudly, in public. Partisan competition and free elections is the best way that these questions can be articulated, debated, and resolved.

The current situation, in other words, is a “perfect storm” of crisis in which are democratic elections are in danger.

Political scientists disagree about many things, related to how we explain the world, which policies work best, and which ideological commitments are most compelling. Through our publication and broader communication, we debate these things in a serious way. Our journals provide forums for serious, critical, and non-ideological debate.

At the same time, the extraordinary speed with which over a thousand political scientists came together this week to express concern about the November election demonstrates that there is one thing about which there is a very strong intellectual consensus among political scientists: democratic elections are always important, but never more so than in a crisis. And so, since the 1930s, it has never been more important than now to do everything we can, through Congressional action, state-level action, and public vigilance, to ensure that there will be a democratic election this coming November.

We Must Urgently Work to Guarantee Free and Fair Democratic Elections in November

We write as U.S. political scientists who are also parents, children, and concerned citizens, to urge that measures be taken right now to ensure that a free, fair, and smooth election can take place this coming November.

It is widely understood that elections are the heart of modern democracy. This is recognized in our Constitution, in federal law, and in important court decisions. It is recognized by both the Democratic and the Republican parties.

The COVID-19 pandemic that has befallen the U.S., along with the rest of the world, has caused a public health crisis that endangers the lives of millions of people, and also threatens to cause enormous economic suffering. The virus is also causing a political crisis, because it presents major challenges to public policy, but also because it endangers the democratic elections that are the heart of representative government and that regularly hold public officials accountable to the citizens that they claim to represent.

We do not know how long the current state of emergency will last. But we can see how it is currently disrupting primaries across the country, causing millions of citizens to be afraid to venture out of their homes, and even causing some states to postpone primary elections.

As we currently scramble to face the immediate crisis, we must remember that the November general elections are over eight months away. We have time to prepare, now, to ensure that these elections can take place, fairly, under any circumstances, and even if public health concerns prevent people from going to the polling booths to vote. A number of proposals to do this have been floated. We are particularly impressed by “How to Protect the 2020 Vote from the Coronavirus,” a report published this week by the Brennan Center for Justice. The report outlines a number of possible measures, including (1) polling place modification and preparation; (2) expanded early voting; (3) a universal vote-by-mail option; (4) voter registration modification and preparation, including expanded online registration; and (5) voter education and manipulation prevention.

We urge Congress to act, now, to deliberate and then enact legislation designed to address these concerns. And we urge all citizens to take this problem seriously, now, in time to make sure that our representatives do what is needed.

In the entire history of the United States, there has never been a missed election. Elections were held during the Civil War, during World War I, and during World War II. We must make sure that the election takes place this coming November, and that it is a free, fair, and democratic election in which all citizens have the chance to participate.
Jeffrey C. Isaac, Indiana University, Bloomington
Michael Bernhard, University of Florida, Gainesville
Mala Htun, University of New Mexico
Jim Johnson, University of Rochester
Mary Katzenstein, Cornell University
Peter Katzenstein, Cornell University
Steven Levitsky, Harvard University
Jane Mansbridge, Harvard University
G. Bingham Powell, University of Rochester
Sanford Schram, Hunter College
Rogers Smith, University of Pennsylvania
Joe Soss, University of Minnesota
Sidney Tarrow, Cornell University
Kathleen Thelen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Jeffrey Tulis, University of Texas
Laurel Weldon, Simon Fraser University
William Kindred Winecoff, Indiana University, Bloomington
Alton B.H. Worthington, University of Michigan
Brent Sasley, University of Texas at Arlington
Vasabjit Banerjee, Mississippi State University
Justin Schon, University of Florida
Sean Patrick Eudaily, University of Montana Western
Suzanne Mettler, Cornell University
Samantha Majic, John Jay College-CUNY
Joseph Lowndes, University of Oregon
Cathy Lisa Schneider American University
Douglas Lemke ,Pennsylvania State University
Vladimir Tismaneanu, University of Maryland, College Park
Mariah Zeisberg, University of Michigan
Matthew Dean Hindman, University of Tulsa
Nancy Bermeo, Princeton University
Steven Beller, Washington DC
Barbara Cruikshank University of Massachusetts
Lauren M. MacLean, Indiana University, Bloomington
Thad Williamson, University of Richmond
Sumit Ganguly, Indiana University, Bloomington
Chase Hobbs-Morgan, University of California Santa Barbara
Michael Leo Owens, Emory University
John Meyer, Humboldt State University
Pamela Gemme
David Temin, University of Michigan
Melvin Rogers, Brown University
Hugh Agnew, The George Washington University
Dan Reiter, Emory University
Rick Doner, Emory University
Nicholas Valentino, University of Michigan
Jeffrey C. Goldfarb, The New School for Social Research
Stephen Engel, Bates College
Noah Zerbe, Humboldt State University
Alan Wolfe, Emeritus Boston College
Alan Abramowitz, Emory University
Vesla M. Weaver, Johns Hopkins University
Michael Traugott, University of Michigan
Michael Hoffman, University of Notre Dame
Judith Grant, Ohio University
Lilliana Mason, University of Maryland
Suzanne Dovi, University of Arizona
George Tsebelis, U of Michigan
Susan Stokes University of Chicago
Neil Roberts, Williams College
Robert C. Lieberman, Johns Hopkins University
David Redlawsk, University of Delaware
Eric Reinhardt, Emory University
Judy Failer, Indiana University, Bloomington
Martin O. Heisler, University of Maryland, College Park
Michael Kaplan, CUNY
Michaelle Browers, Wake Forest University
Christopher C. Robinson, Clarkson University
Jeffrey K. Staton, Emory University
Jason Brozek, Lawrence University
Katherine Cramer, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Lucan Way University of Toronto
Stephen Pimpare, University of New Hampshire
Michael Rich, Emory University
Suzanne Dovi, University of Arizona
Adam Sheingate, Johns Hopkins University
Micah Rasmussen, Rider University
Holli A. Semetko
Holli A. Semetko, Emory University
Robert Axelrod, U of Michigan
Hannah Alarian, University is Florida
Lisa Wedeen, University of Chicago
Arlene W Saxonhouse, University of Michigan
Anne Pitcher, University of Michigan
Richard Nolan, University of Florida, Gainesville
Jack Bielasiak, Indiana University, Bloomington
Leslie Paul Thiele, University of Florida
Emily Gade, Emory University
Grace Holcomb
Andrew Rosenberg, University of Florida
Charles Tien, Hunter College and the Graduate Center, CUNY
Rosa Squillacote, CUNY Hunter College
Erin Mayo-Adam, Hunter College, CUNY
Carolyn Somerville, Hunter College
Alyson Cole, Queens College & the Graduate Center, CUNY
Leonard Feldman, Hunter College
Ido Oreu, University of Florida
Sarah E. Parkinson, Johns Hopkins University
Jean C Robinson, Indiana University
Fred Schaffer, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Ian M Hartshorn, University of Nevada
Jillian Schwedler, Hunter College and the Graduate Center, CUNY
Myra Waterbury, Ohio University
Daniel O’Neill, University of Florida
Tarek Masoud, Harvard Kennedy School
Sotirios A. Barber, University of Notre Dame
Edward Schatz, University of Toronto
Melani Cammett, Harvard University
Ore Koren, Indiana University
Terri Givens, CEO, the Center for Higher Education Leadership
Aili Mari Tripp, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Justin H. Gross, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Peter Alexander Meyers, Sorbonne Nouvelle
Jairus Victor Grove, University of Hawai’i at Manoa
Juliet Hooker, Brown University
Zachary Shirkey, Hunter College and The Graduate Center, CUNY
Michael Lee, Hunter College
Bonnie Honig. Brown University
Eduardo Moncada, Barnard College, Columbia University
Nadav Shelef, University of Wisconsin
Claire Snyder-Hall
Rebecca Best, University of Missouri – Kansas City
Kenneth R. Mayer, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Fonna Forman, University of California, San Diego
Sumita Pahwa, Scripps College.
Ira Katznelson, Columbia University
Elena Gambino, Rutgers University
Jennifer Thoreen, Walden University
Jack Turner, University of Washington
Karam Dana, University of Washington Bothell
Nahomi Ichino, Emory University
Emily Regan Wills, University of Ottawa
Richard L. Hall, University of Michigan
Tani Sebro, Humboldt State University
Ruth Berins Collier, University of California, Berkeley
Deva Woodly, The New School
Stephen Craig, University of Florida
Robyn Marasco, CUNY
Jack Jackson, Whitman College
Jeff Millstone, Austin Community College
Kenneth Roberts, Cornell University
Michelle Weitzel, New School for Social Research
Elisabeth Anker, George Washington University
Adam Newmark, Appalachian State University
Megan Gallagher, The University of Alabama
James Old, Valparaiso University
Natasha Behl, Arizona State University
Ashley R. Jester, Stanford University
Bill Scheuerman, Indiana University
Mary Manjikian, Regent University
Thomas Pepinsky, Cornell University
Glenn Mackin, University of Rochester
Kenneth R. Mackie, Florida State University
Maxwell Fuerderer, Hunter College
Evan Lieberman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Hussein Banai, Indiana University, Bloomington
Sharon Krause, Brown University
Marek Steedman, University of Southern Mississippi
Robin Best, Binghamton University (SUNY)
Daniel Nexon, Georgetown University
James H. Fowler, University of California, San Diego
Tina Zappile, Stockton University
Gary Jacobson, University of California San Diego
Kristen Hudak Rosero, Wentworth Institute of Technology
David Hedge, University of Florida
Michael Jones-Correa, University of Pennsylvania
Ronald F Inglehart, University of Michigan
Paul Pierson, University of California, Berkeley
Ora Szekely, Clark University
Lenka Bustikova, Arizona State University
Stephen Bagwell, DePauw University
Jonathan Benjamin-Alvarado, University of Nebraska Omaha
David Wiens, University of California San Diego
Yoshiko Herrera, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Leo Casey, Albert Shanker Institute
Jeffrey Kopstein, UC Irvine
Glen Besa
Stephen E. Hanson, William & Mary
Adam Dahl, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Donald M. Beaudette Emory University (Oxford College)
Robert Franzese, University of Michigan
Simanti Lahiri, Villanova University
Sean Q Kelly, California State University Channel Islands
Feryaz Ocakli, Skidmore College
Thomas E. Doyle, II, Texas State University
Amel Ahmed, University of Massachusetts, Amherst
H N Hirsch, Oberlin College
F. Gregory Gause III, Texas A&M University
Daniel Hirschel-Burns, Yale University
Jamie Druckman, Northwestern University
Nandini Deo, Lehigh University
Charles Barrilleaux Florida State University
Julie Novkov, University at Albany, SUNY
Mary L. Atkinson, UNC Charlotte
Matthew R. Bishop, The George Washington University
Tamara Cofman Wittes
Badredine Arfi, University of Florida
Daniel Carpenter, Harvard University
Didi Kuo, Stanford University
Terrence Chapman, the University of Texas
Frances Lee, Princeton University
Jason Frank, Cornell University
Sergio Garcia-Rios, Cornell University
Ryan Emenaker, College of the Redwoods
Jason Neidleman, University of La Verne
John Wallach, The City University of New York
Matthew Nowlin, College of Charleston
Joseph W. Roberts, Roger Williams Uniiversity
Alexander Hertel-Fernandez, Columbia University
Lee Drutman, New America
Germaine A. Hoston, University of California San Diego
Amy L. Atchison, Valparaiso University
Jennifer McCoy, Georgia State University
David Karpf, George Washington University
Matt Lacombe, Barnard College-Columbia University
Keena Lipsitz, Queens College-CUNY
Barry Burden, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Valerie Bunce, Cornell University
Brian Mello Muhlenberg College
Scott Straus, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Patrick Tilton
Andrew Vitek, Pennsylvania State University
Liv Coleman, University of Tampa
John DiIulio University of Pennsylvania
Roger Karapin, Hunter College and the Graduate Center, CUNY
Randi WeingArten , AFT
Kevin K. Banda, Texas Tech University
Steven Brooke, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Geneva Cole, University of Chicago
Lina Newton Hunter College, CUNY
Ruchan Kaya, Austin College
Leila Harris, University of British Columbia
Lisa Magaña, ASU
Rob Shrode, UNC Asheville
Pavielle Haines, University of Denver
Ross Edwards, Albertus Magnus College
Briget Rein
Robert Mickey, University of Michigan
Mark Dincecco, University of Michigan
Kevin Deegan-Krause, Wayne State University
Karen Beckwith, Case Western Reserve University
David Brian Robertson, U of Missouri-St. Louis
Prakash Kashwan, University of Connecticut, Storrs.
Michael J. Pomante II, Jacksonville University
Peter Dreier, Occidental College
Michael A. Magee, University of Oregon
Lisa Gilson, Harvard University
Misty Knight-Finley, Rowan University
Salih Noor, Northwestern University
Don Graham, Cal
Claire Adida, UC San Diego
Dale Murphy, Georgetown University
Susan McWilliams Barndt, Pomona College
Mark Tessler, University of Michigan
Christopher Sebastian Parker, University of Washingtonshington
Vaughn Shannon, Wright State University
Karen Pusateri
Christopher Sebastian Parker, University of Washington
Philip Chen, Beloit College
Dvora Yanow, California State University, East Bay (Emerita)
Kevin Bruyneel, Babson College
Daniel Skinner, Ohio University
Linda Veazey, Midwestern State University
William C. Smith, University of Miami
Joshua Cherniss, Georgetown University
Jeremy Wolf, SUNY Cortland
Rikhil R. Bhavnani, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Michael Zis, Macalester College
Lynda Dodd, Princeton University
Alexander Livingston, Cornell University
Matt Motta, Oklahoma State University
Sean Hayes, US Citizen
Larry Svabek, University of Chicago
Sarah Dreier, University of Washington
Sarah Dreier, University of Washington
Diane Singerman, American University
Stephen Lazer, Arizona State University
Leonardo A. Villalon, University of Florida
Jody Neathery-Castro, University of Nebraska, Omaha
Jared D. Larson, Humboldt State University
David C. Kimball, University of Missouri-St. Louis
Jasmine Noelle Yarish, Augustana College
Harvey Feigenbaum, George Washington University
Lisa Martin, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Helen M. Kinsella University of Wisconsin-Madison
Diana Greenwald, City College of New York, CUNY
Pierre M. Atlas, Marian University Indianapolis
Bethany Albertson, University of Texas, Austin
Pierre M. Atlas, Marian University Indianapolis
Mark Yellin, Liberty Fund
Andrea Pacione
Aaron Rosenthal, Simmons University
Sheila Suess Kennedy ONeill School of Public and Enviromnental Affairs
Michelle Schwarze, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Larry Ruth, Univ. of California, Berkeley, ret.
Michael C. Wujnovich, Riverview High School, Sarasota, Florida
Tom Birkland, North Carolina State University
Ben Smith, University of Florida
Keith C Starling Indiana University graduate
Jonathan Zasloff, UCLA School of Law
Donald Kinder University of Michigan
Kathleen Barth
Gabriel Nahmias, MIT
Joseph White, Case Western Reserve Universityi
Alexander Rivkin, David Geffen/UCLA School of Medicine
Kevin Clarke, University of Rochester
Vicky Murillo, Columbia University
Alyssa Maraj Grahame, Bates College
Yvette Joy Liebesman, St. Louis University School of Law
Monica Clua-Losada, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Edie Goldenberg University of Michigan
Romand Coles
Nicholas Rush Smith, CUNY-City College
Faheem Haider (formerly SUNY New Paltz)
John Hultgren, Bennington College
Noah Garrison, UCLA
Valeria Sinclair-Chapman, Purdue University
Mark Gibney UNC-Asheville
Nathaniel Dalton, University of Michigan
Nicholas Buccola, Linfield College
Hakeem Jefferson, Stanford University
Vincent L. Hutchings, University of Michigan
Dena Levy, SUNY Brockport
Verónica Hoyo, UCSD
Kathryn Caldera, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
Bernard Fraga, Indiana University
Charles R. Shipan, University of Michigan
Sahib Jafarov, University of Toronto
Matt Dull, Virginia Tech
Christopher Stout, Oregon State University
Cheryl Van Den Handel, Northeastern State University
Brant Lee, University of Akron
Todd Puglisi
Sarah Staszak, Princeton University
Judy Rohrer, Eastern Washington University
Dorrie Mazzone, Diablo Valley College
Sidney M. Milkis, University of Virginia
Ryan Yonk, North Dakota State University
Julie R. Klein, Villanova University
David Collier, University of California, Berkeley
Thomas Scotto, University of Strathclyde
Patrick T. Hickey, West Virginia University
Mark Reinhardt, Williams College
Sheri Berman, Barnard College
Jeremiah Garretson, California State University, East Bay
Stephen Macedo, Princeton University
Scott L. Greer, University of Michigan
Steven Fish, UC Berkeley
John Ishiyama, University of North Texas
Andrew Chin, University of North Carolina
Lisa M. Holmes, University of Vermont
Brad Jones, UC Davis
David R. Ayón, University of California, Berkeley
Kristin J. Kelly, Austin Community College
Kenneth Erickson, CUNY – Hunter College
Vanessa Cruz Nichols, Indiana University
Milind Thakar, University of Indianapolis
Hans Noel, Georgetown University
Irving Leonard Markovitz, CUNY,Queens Collegege and the
Chad A. Hankinson, Oklahoma State University
Darin Self, Cornell University
Geoff Allen, University of Utah
Shaiel Ben-Ephraim, University of California, Los Angeles
Andrew Leber, Harvard University
Shana Kushner Gadarian, Maxwell School, Syracuse University
Kenneth Schultz, Stanford University
Clare R. Brock, Texas Woman’s University
Kanika Khanna, Cornell University
Jason McDaniel, San Francisco State University
Jacob Smith, Duke University
Steve Utych, Boise State University
Jason Lyall, Dartmouth College
Christopher F. Karpowitz, Brigham Young University
Anjali Dayal, Fordham University
Salil Benegal, DePauw University
Thomas Hayes, University of Connecticut
Rodger A. Payne, University of Louisville
Jane L. Sumner, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities
Bobby Gomez, The University of Texas at Arlington
Gautam Mukunda, Harvard Kennedy School
Charles Olney, University of Texas, Rio Grande Valley
Adam Scott Kunz, CSU-Monterey Bay
Craig R. Christiansen, University of Kansas
Ron Hayduk
James Lemons, MD, Indiana University
Christopher C. Towler, Sacramento State University
John Gershman, NYU-Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service
Paul Herron, Providence College
Florian M Hollenbach, Texas A&M University
Erica Simmons, University of Wisconsin–Madison
Lisa Bryant, California State University, Fresno
Bryant William Sculos, Worcester State University
Chris Roberts, Pierce College
Christina Fattore, West Virginia University
Andrés Besserer Rayas, Graduate Center, CUNY
Andrew Howard, UCLA School of Law
Margaret Susan Thompson, Syracuse University
Scott Siegel, San Francisco State University
Dean Schafer, City University of New York
Dannagal G. Young, University of Delaware
Erika Moreno, Creighton University
Daniel W. Drezner, Tufts University
Mark Copelovitch, University of Wisconsin – Madison
Rick Witmer, Creighton University
Michael Alan Mosher, University of Tulsa
Shane A. Gleason, Texas A&M University- Corpus Christi
Yusuf Sarfati, Illinois State University
Stan Oklobdzija, Claremont McKenna College
Michael Latner, California Polytechnic State University
David Parker, Montana State University
Jeremy Buchman, Long Island University
Lane Crothers, Illinois State University
Michael Forman, University of Washington, Tacoma
Andrew Chin, University of North Carolina
Ahsan Butt, George Mason University
Christopher M. Federico, University of Minnesota
Diane Klein, University of La Verne
David Waldner, University of Virginia
Casey Dominguez, University of San Diego
Igor Logvinenko, Wellesley College
James M. Scott, Texas Christian University
Natalie Letsa, University of Oklahoma
Scott Comparato, Southern Illinois University – Carbondale
Tanisha Fazal, University of Minnesota
Andrew Mertha, Johns Hopkins/SAIS
Kathleen R. Arnold, DePaul University
Stephen M. Saideman, Carleton University
Michael Flynn, Kansas State University
Rebecca Kreitzer, UNC Chapel Hill
John Baughman, Bates College
Marc Trussler, Washington University
Douglas Rice, UMass Amherst
Todd A. Curry, University of Texas at El Paso
Seth Masket, University of Denver
Sara Mitchell, University of Iowa
James Fearon, Stanford University
Michael P. McDonald, University of Florida
Shervin Malekzadeh, Colgate University
Erin A. Snider, Texas A&M University
Rob Bohrer, Gettysburg College
Tyler Yates, University of North Texas
J. Eric Oliver, University of Chicago
Mavis Amundson
Daniel Schlozman, Johns Hopkins University
Carrie LeVan, Colby College
Charmaine Willis, University at Albany, SUNY
Scott LaCombe, University of Iowa
Laura Seay, Colby College
Christian Grose, University of Southern California
Benjamin Denison, Tufts University
Santiago Anria, Dickinson College
John Lovett, Wake Forest University
Nicholas Creel, Georgia College and State University
Kyle Saunders, Colorado State University
Michael C. Marshall, Alma College
Aaron Weinschenk, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay
Jaclyn Kettler, Boise State University
Ari Kohen, University of Nebraska—Lincoln
Patrick Cottrell, Linfield College
Michael W. Wagner, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Emily Farris, TCU
David Watkins, University of Dayton
Mark D. Ramirez, Arizona State University
Rochelle Terman, University of Chicago
Ingrid Haas, University if Nebraska-Lincoln
Benjamin Knoll, Centre College
Christopher Brough, University of Dayton
J.P. Singh, George Mason University
Megan Remmel, Bradley University
Jerold Duquette, Central Connecticut State University
Phillip Lipscy, University of Toronto
John Kropf, Diablo Valley College
Daniel de Kadt, University of California Merced
Kevin Lucas, Capital University
Christian Hosam, University of California, Berkeley
Rachel Sigman, Naval Postgraduate School
Gennady Rudkevich, Georgia College
Daniel R Petri, UMGC
Gabriel Cohen, University of Nevada – Reno
Baobao Zhang, MIT
Jessica Hejny, Middle Tennessee State University
Nicole Pankiewicz, College of Coastal Georgia
Navin Bapat, University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill
Sally Anne Sadler, Whitworth University
Juan Urbano, American River College
Dominik Stecuła, University of Pennsylvania
Ryan Daugherty, Concordia University Wisconsin
Abigail Hassett, University of South Carolina
Andrew Heiss, Georgia State University
Jessica Trounstine, University of California Merced
Albert Ponce, Diablo Valley College
Andrea Jones-Rooy, New York University
Gregory J. Wolf, Drake University
Robert E. Williams, Jr., Pepperdine University
Tamsin Shaw, New York University
Stephanie Schwartz, University of Southern California
Jonathan R Strand, University of Nevada Las Vegas
Paul Testa, Brown University
Eunji Kim, Vanderbilt University
Jessie Bullock, Harvard University
Allen Hicken, University of Michigan
Darrell Lovell, West Texas A&M University
Jay Wendland, Daemen College
Michael Salamone, Washington State University
John Kuk, Washington University in St Louis
Janni Aragon, University of Victoria
Andrew Chin, University of North Carolina
Nicolè M. Ford, The University of Tampa
Nick Clark, Susquehanna University
William Christiansen, Virginia Commonwealth University
Andrew R. Flores, American University
Jamie Mayerfeld, University of Washington
Jonathan Weiler, UNC Chapel Hill
Page Fortna, Columbia University
Frederick M. Dolan, University of California, Berkeley
Marcela García-Castañon, San Francisco State University
Paasha Mahdavi, UC Santa Barbara
Sean Freeder, University of California, Berkeley
Jade Schiff, Oberlin College
Tim Vercellotti, Western New England University
Abbey Steele, University of Amsterdam
Daniel McIntosh, Slippery Rock University
Michael Herndon UCLA
Stephen Medvic, Franklin & Marshall College
Donna Schuele, CSU Dominguez Hills
Miranda Yaver, UCLA
Christopher Sprecher. Allan Hancock College
Thomas J. Leeper, London School of Economics and Political Science
Sona Golder, Pennsylvania State University
Mary Stuckey Penn State
Carolyn Barnett, Princeton University
Nicholas Lotito, Yale University
Gary Herrigel, University of Chicago
Goran Hyden University of Florida
Thomas Oatley, Tulane University
Sean Yom, Temple University
Lahra Smith Georgetown University
Virginia Sapiro, Boston University
Burdett Loomis, University of Kansas
Lida Maxwell, Boston University
Jeffrey Lazarus., Georgia State University.
Samuel Bagg, University of Oxford
Matthew Green, Catholic University of America
Heath Brown, CUNY John Jay College
Christopher J. Galdieri, Saint Anselm College
Tim LaPira, James Madison University
Miles Kahler, American University
Timothy S. Rich, Western Kentucky University
Timothy G. Hill, Doane University
Kevin Arceneaux, Temple University
Peter Yacobucci SUNY Buffalo State
Donna R. Hoffman, University of Northern Iowa
Ashley Biser, Ohio Wesleyan University
Amanda D. Clark, Nova Southeastern
Mia Bloom, Georgia State University
Elizabeth Simmons-O’Neill, University of Washington emeritus
Jeffrey Henig, Columbia University
Scott Blinder, UMass Amherst
David Eichert, Cornell University
Timothy Hellwig, Indiana University
M. Joel Voss, University of Toledo
Andrew J Vollmer, University of Dayton
David Leblang, University of Virginia.
Dan Slater, University of Michigan
Bryon Moraski, University of Florida
Ayesha Ray, King’s College, Pennsylvania
Eric Blanchard, SUNY Oswego
Brian Schaffner, Tufts University
Jennifer Nicoll Victor, George Mason University
Joseph O’Mahoney, University of Reading
Thomas M. Keck, Syracuse University
Justin Kirkland, University of Virginia
David Darmofal, University of South Carolina
Janet Lewis, George Washington University
Matthew Carnes, Georgetown University
Brian Min, University of Michigan
Claire Rasmussen, University of Delaware
Matthew Cebul
Michael L Miller, Social Science Research Council
Gina Yannitell Reinhardt, University of Essex
Herman Mark Schwartz, University of Virginia
Abraham Newman Georgetown University
Matthew Cebul, University of Michigan
Scott Cook, Texas A&M University
Anibal VeraTudela, University of Phoenix
Lilly Goren, Carroll University
Rachel A. May, University of South Florida
Jamil Scott, Georgetown University
Peter Lewis, Johns Hopkins University
Holly Jarman, University of Michigan
Paul Djupe, Denison University
Amy Erica Smith, Iowa State University
Mark Rupert, Syracuse University
Deborah J Yashar, Princeton University
Welling Hall, Earlham College (retired)
Kathleen R. McNamara, Georgetown University
Nathan P. Kalmoe, Louisiana State University
Geoff Bowden, Savannah State University
Thomas F. Schaller, UMBC
Yuhki Tajima, Georgetown University
David Richards, University of Lynchburg
John Carey, Dartmouth College
Cindy Rugeley University of Minnesota Duluth
David A. M. Peterson, Iowa State University
Joshua Weiss, Bay Path University
Abigail Matthews, Miami University
Christopher Faricy, Syracuse University
Jonathan Hassid, Iowa State University
Matt Wells, Wabash College
Maxwell Palmer, Boston University
Julie Lee Merseth, Northwestern University
Mimi Glumac, San Francisco State University
Dawn Kurtz, SUNY Brockport
David Bateman, Cornell University
Scott Feinstein, Iowa State University
Charles King, Georgetown University
Dara Strolovitch, Princeton University
Paula Nicole Booke, Tulane University
Scott D. McClurg, Southern Illinois University – Carbondale
Jeremy Menchik, Boston University
Ezra Suleiman , Princeton University
Erin O’Brien, University of Massachusetts Boston
Paul Nolette, Marquette University
Karen M. Kedrowski Iowa State University
Mack Shelley, Iowa State University
Katja Kleinberg, Binghamton University (SUNY)
Abby Cordova, University of Kentucky
Alec Crisman, McGill University
Joanne Miller, University of Delaware
Travis Johnston, UMass Boston
Chloe Thurston, Northwestern University
Michael Ensley, Kent State University
Amber Wichowsky, Marquette University
Zack Bonner, Iowa State University
Robin L. Turner, Butler University
Grant Buckles, University of Louisville
Bryan Jones, University of Texas at Austin
Melissa R. Michelson, Menlo College
Meghan Leonard, Illinois State University
Raul Madrid, University of Texas at Austin
William M. Reisinger, University of Iowa
Jennie Ikuta, University of Tulsa
Bertram Johnson, Middlebury College
William d’Ambruoso, Bates College
Andrés Delgado, University of South Florida
Eric Gonzalez Juenke, Michigan State University
Chryl Laird, Bowdoin College
Chad Rector, Marymount University
Jamila Michener, Cornell University
Kevin M. Baron, Austin Peay State University
Philip Klinkner, Hamilton College
Philip Rocco, Marquette University
Joseph Smith, The University of Alabama
Scott Weiner, George Washington University
Robert McGrath, George Mason University
John Brehm, University of Chicago
Benjamin Goldfrank, Seton Hall University
Eva Bellin Brandeis University
Mia Costa, Dartmouth College
Daniel Braaten, Texas Lutheran University
Jack Mehoff , University of Southern Mississippi
Evan Crawford, University of San Diego
Daniel M. Smith, Harvard University
Maurice T. Cunningham, University of Massachusetts at Boston
Stella M. Rouse University of Maryland
Tracee Saunders, University of Iowa
Anna Daily, University of Colorado Boulder
Benjamin Bishin, UC Riverside
Celeste Montoya, University of Colorado Boulder
Meghan Condon, Loyola University Chicago
Jelena Subotic, Georgia State University
Celeste Montoya, University of Colorado Boulder
Paula D. McClaiin, Duke University
Jeff Colgan, Brown University
Kyle Estes, Iowa State University
Kylee Britzman, Lewis-Clark State College
Stephanie Walls, Bowling Green State University
Janet Box-Steffensmeier, The Ohio State University
Brian Taylor, Syracuse University
Jytte Klausen, Brandeis University
Julia Azari, Marquette University
Sara Chatfield, University of Denver
Bernard Yack, Brandeis University
Chris Witko Pennsylvania State University
John P. Messmer, St. Louis Community College
Dwight D,. Allman, Baylor University
Patricia C. Rodda, Carroll University
Scott Guenther, Princeton University
Chad Levinson, Virginia Tech
Javier Corrales, Amherst College
John P. Messmer, St. Louis Community College
Charles W. Gossett, California State University, Sacramento ersity – Sacramento
Cheryl Hall, University of South Florida
Phil Jones, University of Delaware
Larissa Peixoto Gomes, Fundação João Pinheiro
Ethan Scheiner, UC Davis
John J. Pitney, Jr., Claremont McKenna College
Renee de Nevers, Syracuse University
Christina Wolbrecht, University of Notre Dame
Carolyn E Holmes, Mississippi State University
Bozena Welborne, Smith College
Alison McCartney, Towson University
Alejandro Trelles, Brandeis University
Zachary Albert, Brandeis University
Richard W. Mansbach, Iowa State University
Manuela L. Picq, Amherst College
David Campbell, University of Notre Dame
Joseph Parent, University of Notre Dame
Elizabeth Sheridan Sperber, University of Denver
Vittorio Hösle, University of Notre Dame
tin-bor victoria hui, univ. of notre dame
Jim McAdams, Notre Dame
Thomas Kellenberg, University of Notre Dame
Joshua Miller, UNC Charlotte
Elton Skendaj, Manchester University
Michael Zuckert, Notre Dame
Catherine Zuckert, University of Notte Dame
Andrew Civettini, Knox College
Miguel Carter, DEMOS
Dianne Pinderhughes, University of Notre Dame
Steven Vogel, University of California, Berkeley
Whitney K. Taylor, San Francisco State University
Karrie Koesel, University of Notre Dame
Hillel David Soifer, Temple University
Michael Artime, Pacific Lutheran University
Debra Javeline, University of Notre Dame
Pierre F. Landry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Janice H Bergman, US citizen
Elizabeth A. Bennion, Indiana University South Bend
Michael Coppedge, University of Notre Dame
Eileen Hunt Botting, Notre Dame
Paul D. Williams, The George Washington University
David C. Leege, University of Notre Dame
Mark Olson, Grantham University
Julia Marin Hellwege, University of South Dakota
Marie Olson Lounsbery, East Carolina University
Anieka Johnson, University of Notre Dame
Rosalyn Cooperman, University of Mary Washington
Patricia Siplon, Saint Michael’s College
Ian Shapiro, CU Boulder
Beth Reingold, Emory University
David Canon, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Nolan McCarty, Princeton University
Carolina Arroyo, University of Notre Dame
Scott Frisch, California State University Channel Islands
Jon Green, Ohio State University
Laurel Harbridge-Yong, Northwestern University
Maggie Shum, University of Notre Dame
Jeremy Cloward, Diablo Valley College
David Covin, Sacramento State University
Lindsay Mayka, Colby College
Benjamin McKean, Ohio State University
Anibal Perez-Linan, University of Notre Dame
Bozena Welborne, Smith College
Della Zurick, Macalester College
Ayah Ibrahim
Sara Angevine, Whittier College
Richard Bensel, Cornell University
Leonard Williams, Manchester University
Matthew Gunning, Georgia Gwinnett College
Sanford Gordon, New York University
Hratch Zadoian, Queens College CUNY
Nancy J. Walker
James Lindley Wilson, University of Chicago
G. R. Boynton University of Iowa
Timothy Turnbull, University of Southern California
Antonio Ugues Jr., St. Mary’s College of Maryland
Thomas Mann, Brookings and University of California, Berkeley
Nicole Mellow, Williams College
Richard B Johnson, Michigan State University
David Trowbridge, Middle Tennessee State University
Jim Mahon, Williams College
Daniel Hellinger, Webster University
Justin Crowe, Williams College
Sidney Rothstein, Williams College
Thomas L Dumm, Amherst College
Matthew Hall, University of Notre Dame
Mason B. Williams, Williams College
Steven E. Earl, Chester School of Hard Knocks
Elliott Fullmer, Randolph-Macon College
Alexandra Reckendorf, Virginia Commonwealth University
Geoff Layman, University of Notre Dame
Dwaine Jengelley, Purdue University
Elizabeth Bussiere, University of Massachusetts Boston
Lotem Halevy, University of Pennsylvania
Martin Edelman, University at Albany, emeritus
Kyle Haynes, Purdue University
Patrick Gauding, University of Kansas
Shea Streeter, University of Michigan
Noah Zucker, Columbia University
Stephen Farnsworth, University of Mary Washington
Caroline Beer, University of Vermont
Ben Ross Schneider MIT
Linda Beail, Point Loma Nazarene University
Joshua Zingher, Old Dominion University
John Kenneth White, Catholic University of America
Rob Williams, Washington University in St. Louis
Heather Pool, Denison University
Janet Laible, Lehigh University
Chris Longenecker, San Francisco State University
Yonatan Morse, University of Connecticut
Arthur Goldhammer, Harvard University
Sam Rosenfeld, Colgate University
Howard Lavine, University of Minnesota
Dipali Mukhopadhyay, Columbia University
Ryan Saylor, University of Tulsa
David Grace, Chester High School, Conestoga High School
Michael Clancy, University of Hartford
Michael G. Miller, Barnard College
Joan Cho, Wesleyan University
Zachary Greene, University of Strathclyde
Thomas Mustillo, University of Notre Dame
Zach Courser, Claremont McKenna College
Jack Greenberg, Yale University
Andrew Green, Central College (IA)
Bonnie M. Meguid, University of Rochester
Sparsha Saha, Harvard University
Adam Wright, SNHU alum
J Michael Dedmon, Syracuse University
Debra Thompson, University of Oregon
Daniel Ziblatt, Harvard University
Maricruz Osorio, UC Riverside
Daniel H. Cole, Indiana University, Bloomington
Jeffrey Lenowitz, Brandeis University
R.G. Cravens, California Polytechnic State University
Steven Klein, University of Florida
Joanna Laurx, University of Missouri
Rosella Cappella Zielinski, Boston University
Lori Cox Han, Chapman University
Robert Dion, University of Evansville
Shirley fugit, university of Alabama
Michael Kriner, Cornell University
Sarah Song, University of California, Berkeley
Elizabeth Matto, Rutgers University
Peri Arnold, U. of Notre Dame
Jesse Kirkham Memphis University
Joe Brazda middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey
Theodore Lechterman, Hertie School
Edward Gimbel, University of Wisconsin – Whitewater
Jocelyn Fabello, US Citizen
Devin Judge-Lord, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Stuart D. Warner, Roosevelt University
Ben Taylor, Kennesaw State University
Mariela Daby, Reed College
Ryan Balot, University of Toronto
Jean Beaman, UC Santa Barbara
Anthony P. D’Costa, The University of Alabama in Huntsville
Jason Wittenberg, UC Berkeley
Brian Webb, Gordon State College
Eric Chenowith, Institute for Democracy in Eastern Europe
Larry Diamond, Stanford University
German Smart, Uade
Lauren Prather, UC San Diego
John Cluverius, University of Massachusetts Lowell
Lauren McCarthy, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Michelle Miller-Adams, Grand Valley State University
Delia Popescu, Le Moyne College
Laurie Naranch, Siena College
Jill Greenlee, Brandeis University
Christopher Reenock, Florida State University
Michael Munger, Duke University
Stephen D. Morris, Middle Tennessee State University
Austin Horng-En Wang, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
John Seery, Pomona College
Renata Segura, International Crisis Group
Layna Mosley, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Antoinette Pole, Montclair State University
Amentahru Wahlrab, The University of Texas at Tyler
Mark J. Kaswan, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Derrick Cogburn, American University
Nicolas van de Walle, Cornell University
Beth Elise Whitaker, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
John W. Maynor, Middle Tennessee State University
Alexandra Filindra, University of Illinois at Chicago
Fletcher McClellan, Elizabethtown College
John W. Patty, Emory University
Douglas B. Harris, Loyola University Maryland
Sarah Moore, Northwestern University
Tabitha Bonilla, Northwestern University
Chelsea Kaufman, Wingate University
Stephen Huss, Prairie View A&M University
Kouslaa Kessler-Mata, University of San Francisco
Timothy Wyman McCarty, University of San Diego
Valerie Spinner, Ithaca College
DeWayne Lucas, Hobart and William Smith Colleges
Isabella Alcañiz, University of Maryland
Elizabeth Kosmetatou, University of Illinois at Springfield
Isabella Alcañiz, University of Maryland
Casey Delehanty, Gardner-Webb University
Emily Wanless, Augustana University
Emma Rodman, University of Washington
John D. Ely, CARE International
Shirin Deylami, Western Washington University
Ralph G. Reiser, Esq. Fordham University
Steven Beard, University of California, San Diego
Nacona Nix, Victoria College
David Ost, Hobart and William Smith Colleges
Jeanne Morefield, University of Birmingham (UK)
William Bendix, Keene State College
Ernesto Calvo, University of Maryland
Peter J. Verovšek, University of Sheffield
John A. Stevenson, Guidehouse LLP
Steven V. Miller, Clemson University
Joshua Darr, Louisiana State University
Peter H. Lemieux, retired, formerly MIT and the University of Rochester
Matt Tokeshi, Williams College
Cathy Marie Johnson, Williams College
Benjamin Fordham, Binghamton University (SUNY)
Alex Bolton, Emory University
Paul Friesen, University of Notre Dame
J. Nicholas Ziegler, Brown University
Rob Robinson, California State University Fullerton
Brian Waddell, University of Connecticut
Margaret Weir, Brown University
Sarah Pralle, Syracuse University
Wendy Silvers, Million Mamas Movement
Jennifer Gandhi, Emory University
Shanker Satyanath. New York University
Allison P. Harris, Yale University
Thomas Bell, Knox College
Sylvia Sierra, Syracuse University
Gregory Koger, University of Miami
Karen Kampwirth, Knox College
Amir Fairdosi, Yale University
Anna Grzymala-Busse, Stanford University
Garnet Kindervater, Fordham University
Michelle Krieger, Humboldt State University
Lane V. Sunderland, Knox College
Louisa Sue Hulett, Knox College
Katie Stewart, Knox College
Margaret E Keck, Johns Hopkins University (Emeritus Professor Political Science)
Sharon Stanley, University of Memphis
Jess Steinberg, Indiana University
Mariella I. Arredondo, Indiana University
Eric R. Schmidt, Indiana University
Henry Farrell, GWU
Melissa Schwartzberg (NYU)
Emmanuel Balogun, Skidmore College
Kristofer J. Petersen-Overton, Suffolk University
Eric Hundman, NYU Shanghai
Connor Phillips, Harvard University
Asma Abbas, Bard College at Simon’s Rock
Carlos Figueroa, Ithaca College, New York
Scott Lasensky, University of Maryland, College Park
Sara Rushing, Montana State University
David Yalof, University of Connecticut
Carrie Booth Walling, Albion College
Carissa L. Tudor, Princeton University
Don Van Atta
Vincent Vecera, Randolph College
Darren Walhof, Grand Valley State University
Aurelian Craiutu, Indiana University, Bloomington
Kenneth Kickham, Univ. Of Central Oklahoma
Rashid C.J. Marcano Rivera, Indiana University
Kyri W. Claflin
Meredith Weiss, University at Albany, SUNY
Daniel Galvin, Northwestern University
Scott Wolford, University of Texas
Stephen Chaudoin, Harvard University
Martin Edwards, Seton Hall University
Jeremy Pressman, University of Connecticut
Amitava Dutt, University of Notre Dame
Michael Illuzzi, Lesley University
John Ahlquist, UCSD
Jennifer Leigh Disney, Winthrop University
Donald Disney Baltimore,Maryland
Dov Waxman, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA)
Duane Oldfield, Knox College
Jennifer A Johnson, Emory University
Vivian Daley Trustaff Nursing
Lena Jones, Minneapolis College
Dina Spechler, Indiana University
Joshua A. Tucker, NYU
Patricia Kilinsky
Karen Schwartz Music School
Gregg Miller, University of Washington
Sandy Gelt. Univ of Colorado
Melissa Matthes US Coast Guard Academy
Kevin P Meehan Pryor Ok Democratic Party
Drew Denbaum, Housatonic Community College
Robert Kaufman, Rutgers University
Susan Bickford, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
John Allen Williams, Emeritus, Loyola University Chicago
Paula McAvoy, North Carolina State
Stefan Eich, Georgetown University
Adom Getachew, University of Chicago
N. Susan Laehn – Iowa State University
Nate Hiatt, Yale University
Samuel R. Galloway, Purchase College (SUNY)
Bryan Garsten, Yale University
Paul Linden-Retek, Yale University
Bryan Nakayama, Mount Holyoke College
Max Pensky, BInghamton University
Judith Friedlander, Hunter College, CUNY (Emerita)
Seyla Benhabib, Yale University
Erin Pineda, Smith College
David M. Rasmussen, Boston College
Patchen Markell, Cornell University
Johanna Meehan, Grinnell College
Nica Siegel, Yale University
Cristina Lafont, Northwestern University
Axel Mueller, Northwestern University
Mark McNaught, University of Rennes
Karuna Mantena
Ayten Gundogdu, Barnard College-Columbia University
Marwan Safar Jalani, Yale University
Dick Howard, Stony Brook University
Andy Sobel, Washington University
Marina Calloni, Fellow Italian Academy – Columbia University, New York
Phil Arena
David H. Clark, Binghamton University
Jason Windett, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Matthew Longo, Leiden University
Robert Knott
Scott Lasensky, University of Maryland, College Park
Anne Mishkind, Yale University
Tracy B. Strong, Universities of California, San Diego and Southampton
Eduardo Mendieta, Penn State University
Peter K. T. WU, Professor, National Chiayi University
Michele Vincent
Austin Sarat, Amherst College
Amrita Basu, Amherst College
Thomas Dumm, Amherst College
Kerry Ratigan, Amherst College
Pavel Machala, Amherst College
Jonathan Obert, Amherst College
Pepper D. Culpepper, University of Oxford
Erika Weinthal, Duke University
Samuel Workman, University of Oklahoma
John Agnew, University of California, Los Angeles
Stacy D. VanDeveer, Univ of Massachusetts Boston
Costas Panagopoulos, Northeastern University
Jeannie Sowers, University of New Hampshire
Jaclyn Piatak, University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Mallory Compton, Texas A&M University
Carla Freeman, Johns Hopkins SAIS
William Resh, University of Southern California
Erin Vilardi, Vote Run Lead
Michael John Williams New York University
Elizabeth Carter, University of New Hampshire
James R. Martin Jr., Creighton University
Stacy J. Kosko, University of Maryland
Shibley Telhami, University of Maryland
Jennie Sweet-Cushman, Chatham University
Heather Silber Mohamed, Clark University
Ursula Cimone Walker, University of Texas at Austin
Robert Friedrich, retired, Franklin & Marshall College
Joshua Busby, University of Texas at Austin